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A screenshot of the front panel control and status interface is shown. The interface is designed in a way to be clear and user friendly. On the left, DC Bus parameters and a graph depicting the input and output voltages is shown as well as the load current. Voltage, current, power, and Ampere-hour (Ah) energy indicators are provided. Below, several controls are provided operate the load in constant or pulsed conditions and control the frequency and duty cycle of the pulsed load.
Individual BMS controls are tabbed from BMS 1 to BMS 4 to check live conditions on the right-hand side of the figure. Each BMS has its own control and measurements independent from the others. Voltage, current, power, ampere-hour, charge rate (C-rate), SoC and charge rate values are displayed. C-rate measures the current into or out of the battery with respect to its capacity and is used to analyze each battery’s performance with respect to various C-rates. The C20 rate provides the standard operating condition when estimating capacity output for the SoH. As the C-rate increases, the available capacity will decrease. This value is most useful in the discharge phase as it will influence run-times and based on the method, the C-rate can further impact the performance and SoH. The user has the ability to designate an independent charging method for each BMS. In charging mode, the battery is fully decoupled from the series stack where the bypass relay is activated to continue system operation. Three modes are provided: Off, Constant Charging, and Pulsed Charging.